• Attribute Data

    Attribute Data refers to the descriptive information associated with spatial data. Attributes can include quantitative or qualitative characteristics, such as names, types, or numerical values,…

  • Buffer

    A Buffer in GIS is an area that extends outward from a specified point, line, or polygon by a set distance. Buffers are used in…

  • Digital Elevation Models (DEMs)

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are raster datasets representing the Earth's surface elevation. They are essential for various applications, including terrain analysis, hydrological modeling, and landscape…

  • Digital Surface Model (DSM)

    A Digital Surface Model (DSM) captures the earth's surface and includes all objects on it like buildings and vegetation. DSMs are typically generated through remote…

  • Digital Terrain Model (DTM)

    A Digital Terrain Model (DTM) is a digital representation of the bare ground surface without any objects like plants and buildings. DTMs are crucial for…

  • Environmental Systems Research Institute (Esri)

    Esri (Environmental Systems Research Institute) is a global leader in geographic information system (GIS) software and geodatabase management applications. Founded in 1969, Esri produces a…

  • Geocoding

    Geocoding is the process of converting addresses into geographic coordinates to place them as points on a map. This enables GIS users to analyze patterns…

  • Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are frameworks for gathering, managing, and analyzing data rooted in the science of geography. GIS integrates many types of data and…

  • Georeferencing

    Georeferencing means aligning digital geographic data (such as satellite images or maps) to known geographic locations on the earth's surface. This process is critical for…

  • Geospatial Analysis

    Geospatial Analysis involves evaluating geographic patterns to understand relationships in spatial data, such as distances, distributions, or trends. This analysis is fundamental in fields like…

  • Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is a remote sensing technology that uses laser light to measure distances and create high-resolution 3D models of the Earth's…

  • Line

    A Line or polyline in GIS is formed by connecting a sequence of points with straight, non-branching segments. Lines are used to represent linear features…

  • Metadata

    Metadata in GIS is data that describes other data, detailing the content, quality, origin, and structure of datasets. Metadata is essential for effective data management…

  • Overlay

    An Overlay is a fundamental GIS operation that involves layering two or more maps of the same area to examine relationships between different datasets. This…

  • Point

    In GIS, a Point represents a single, specific location on a map. Defined by a pair of geographic coordinates, points are used to display discrete…

  • Polygon

    A Polygon in GIS is a shape defined by a closed line (boundary) that represents areas like lakes, forests, or administrative boundaries. Polygons can also…

  • Projection

    A Projection is a method used in GIS to portray the curved surface of the earth on a flat map. Projections can distort distance, area,…

  • Raster

    A Raster data type represents geographic data as a matrix of cells or pixels where each pixel holds a value representing information, such as temperature,…

  • Remote Sensing

    Remote Sensing is the technique of acquiring information about objects or areas from a distance, typically from aircraft or satellites. In GIS, remote sensing is…

  • Shapefile (.shp)

    A Shapefile is a popular digital file format used in GIS for storing geometric location and associated attribute information of geographic features. Consisting of a…

  • Spatial Data

    Spatial Data describes the physical location and shape of geographic features and the relationships between them. This data is fundamental to GIS, enabling the visualization,…

  • Vector

    In GIS, Vector data represents geographic features as points, lines, and polygons. Each vector feature is defined by its coordinates and can store data attributes…